Oral Medications in Eye Care

Ocular Oral Medication Management

Oral medications play a significant role in the management of various eye conditions when topical treatments are insufficient or impractical. Optometrists may prescribe oral agents for a range of ocular diseases, including severe uveitis, ocular herpes, and certain forms of glaucoma, where systemic treatment is necessary to achieve therapeutic effects. Commonly used oral medications in ocular therapy include antibiotics for their anti-infective properties, antiviral drugs for treating viral infections, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for reducing intraocular pressure.

Ophthalmic Oral Medications

BrandGenericDosingAmountAgesPregnancyMechanism
Amoxil
GenericPO
amoxicillin500mg po bid-tid x10d250/500/875mg>3 monthsBpenicillin
Augmentin
GenericPO
amoxicillin
clavulanate
250-500mg po bid-tid x10d250/500/875mg>3 monthsBpenicillin
β-lactamase inhibitor
Diamox
GenericPO
acetazolamide500mg po bid125/250mg
500mg ('Sequels')
>12 yearsCcarbonic anhydrase inhibitor
↓ aqueous production
Diclocil
GenericPO
dicloxacillin250mg po qid250/500mg>3 monthsBpenicillin
Famvir
GenericPO
famciclovir250mg po tid x 7d (simplex)
500mg po tid x 7d (zoster)
125/250/500mgNABguanine analogue
Keflex
GenericPO
cephalexin1-4g/d po250/500/750mg>1 yearBcephalosporin
Tylenol #3
GenericPO
acetaminophen 300mg
codeine 30mg
q4-6hsingle tablet>18 yearsCanalgesic
narcotic (Sch.III)
Ultracet
GenericPO
acetaminophen 325mg
tramadol 37.5mg
q4-6h
(max 8 tabs/d)
single tablet>12 yearsCanalgesic
narcotic (Sch.IV)
Ultram
GenericPO
tramadol hydrochlorideq4-6h
(max 400mg/d)
50mg>18 yearsCnarcotic (Sch.IV)
Valtrex
GenericPO
valcyclovir500mg po tid (simplex)
1g po tid x7d (zoster)
500mg/1g>12 yearsBguanine analogue
Vibramycin
GenericPO
doxycycline100mg po bid x7d50/100mg>8 yearsDtetracycline
Vicodin
GenericPO
acetaminophen 300mg
hydrocodone 5mg
q4-6h
(max 12 tabs/d)
single tabletNACnarcotic (Sch.II)
Z-Pak
GenericPO
azithromycinbid po x1d, then qd po x4d250mg x6
250/500/600mg
>6 monthsBmacrolide
Zovirax
GenericPO
acyclovir400mg po 5x/d x7d (simplex)
800mg po 5x/d x7d (zoster)
200/400/800mg>2 yearsBinhibits DNA polymerase