Binocular Vision

TestExpected Values
Near Cover TestOrtho - 6XP
NPC5/7cm Near | 7/10cm Distance
Vergence Facility (3BI/12BO)15 cycles/min
Positive Fusional Vergence17/21/11
Negative Fusional Vergence13/21/13
Positive Fusional Reserve (Blur/Break/Recovery)7-11 / 15-23 / 8-12 △
Negative Fusional Reserve (Blur/Break/Recovery)x / 5-9 / 3-5 △
Amplitude of AccommodationMinimum: 15 - (¼)Age
Lag of Accommodation+0.25 to +0.75
Positive Relative Accommodation-2.37 (±1.00)
Negative Relative Accommodation+2.00 (±0.50)
ACA4/1 △
ConditionCover TestNPCVergence FacilityVergence AmplitudeBinocular Acc. FacilityMonocular Acc. FacilityNRA/PRAMEMAccomodative Amplitude
Basic ExophoriaExo, D=NNormalLow BO @ D&NLow BO @ D&NFails (+)NormalLow NRALowNormal
Basic EsophoriaEso, D=NNormalLow BI @ D&NLow BI @ D&NFails (-)NormalLow PRAHighNormal
Accommodative Insufficiency No PatternNormalNormalNormalFails (-)Fails (-)Low PRAHighLow
Divergence Insufficiency Eso, >DNormalLow BI @ DNormalNormalNormalNormalNormal Normal
Convergence InsufficiencyExo, >NRecededLow BOLow BOFails (+)NormalLow NRALowNormal
Convergence ExcessEso, >NNormalLow BINormalFails (-) NormalLow PRAHighNormal
Fusional Vergence DysfunctionLow Eso or ExoNormal Low BI & BONormalFails (+) & (-)NormalLow NRA/PRANormalNormal
Divergence ExcessExo, >DNormalLow BO @ DLow BO @ DNormalNormalNormalNormalNormal